In the not too distant past, many religions exercised tight control over their members. Those who had the temerity to disagree with any of their teachings faced severe consequences, and they included shunning, being driven out of the area, and some people even faced being burned at the stake. Today’s religious institutions are much more civilized, but they still hold the power of denying those who disagree with them access to their faith through ex-communication and shunning.
One of the most enduring effects of modernization has been the ability of people to communicate quickly, and this has changed how many religious organizations operate. They can no longer keep people from distant parts of the world from exchanging ideas, and many of them have chosen to encourage ecumenical movements rather than condemning those who are part of them. Getting along with rival religions might be difficult, but those of both faiths that cooperate often find their faith renewed.